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asa eye adaba video er

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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Games Apple Computer. Many Negroes, and, amongst them, Mr. Crowther, now a Clergyman of the Church of England, the compiler of the following work, were re-captured from Brazilian slavers by the cruisers of the British squadron, and landed at Sierra Leone, where they received a Christian education in the schools of the Church Missionary Society.

No less than of these involuntary emigrants have since returned to the land of their birth ; and it has also pleased God to bless the labours of the Society's Missionaries in the chief town, Abbeokuta, to the establishment of a flourish- ing Mission amongst the Aborigines, commenced August 3,and now numbering several hundred converts.

A Christian literature became at once a desideratum for this rising Christian community. This want Mr. Crowther is at present supplying. A Yoruba Primer, the Gospel according to St. Luke, the Acts of the Apo- stles, St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, the Epistles of St.

James and St. Peter, and selections of the Book of Com- iv nioii Prayer, embracing all the more important parts of it, except the Psalms, Epistles, and Gospels, are already published, and may, most of them, be obtained at the Society's House.

A new and improved edition of Mr. And it is hoped that the present work, containing near vocables, asa eye adaba video er do much toward settling a rich and eupho- nous language, spoken, probably, by 3, of the Afri- can race, but till within the last ten years never re- duced to writing.

The materials were collected by Mr. Crowther since his return to his native asa eye adaba video er, and the pro- verbial and idiomatic sayings interspersed throughout the book were taken down by him from the lips of his coun- trymen in the course of common conversation. They are here introduced to illustrate the genius of the language ; but they are no less valuable ethnologically, as elucida- ting many of the characteristics of the national mind of this very interesting people.

We refer the reader to the valuable details on both these points contained in the very able article with which this work is enriched, from the pen of one of the best liv- ing scholars in African languages — the Bishop Designate of Sierra Leone, whose first act upon entering on his new see will be thus associated with a measure for the dif- fusion amongst the Yorubans, in their own tongue, of that Sacred Word which will be at once the standard and the subject of all his ministrations among them.

The work is now sent forth with the prayerful hope that it may do much, in God's hand, towards facilitating the progress of the Gospel in a land which has peculiar claims on the efforts and sympathies of England. Church Missionary House, April 12, It is with much diffidence that I venture to lay before the public the following scanty remarks on the distin- guishing peculiarities of the Yoruba language.

My design has been, to illustrate a few of its leading fea- tures, in the hope of aw'akening an interest in the subject, and of giving a stimulus to further investigation. The full appreciation of the character and genius of a language demands a longer and more familiar acquaint- ance with it than has yet fallen to the lot of Europeans in the case of the Yoruba. And where the analogies wdth kindred or cognate dialects are as yet asa eye adaba video er, this difficulty is incomparably asa eye adaba video er than it is where those analogies are traceable.

In taking up, for example, such a language as the Sicuana, supposing the learner to have formed a previous acquaintance with the Kafir, the analogous system of prefixes strikes him at the very first entrance on his studies, and suggests inquiries as to fur- ther analogies, which approve themselves to his mind as probable; so that he does not pursue his researches at random.

Such is the difficulty wdiich we have to encounter in the study of the Yoruba. But at present our knowledge of African philology is so scanty, that it were utterly im- possible to continue our negative process so far. The utmost that I can attempt in the remarks I now have to offer is to lay the foundation of this microsoft word 2011 trial of exclusions, thus marking out one or two of the grand families of the Hamitic asa eye adaba video er, to which the Yoruba cannot be referred, and in this manner limiting to little einsteins em portugues extent the area over which we must search for its affinities.

The first peculiarity of asa eye adaba video er Yoruba language to which I shall refer, is, the complete and regular system of pre- fixes by which substantives are formed. This is a pro- minent feature in the language, and renders it susceptible of increase to an indefinite extent. The original idea contained in the simple verb may be modified in a variety of ways, and carried through numerous igor ledochowski pdf, without periphrasis, by the mere addition of prefixes, in such a asa eye adaba video er system that it is scarcely possible asa eye adaba video er mis- take the meaning of the compound.

We have first the radical word, expressing the sim- ple idea of acting or suffering ; as se, " do ;" fe, " love ;" MO, " know ;" lo, "go. The idea contained in this radical word assumes a substantive form, in which it expresses abstractedly the action denoted by the verb, by taking the prefix? The action denoted by the verb cannot be always regarded in the abstract: Perhaps the distinction might be stated thus, that i denotes the act, a the fact, expressed in the verb.

The prefix ati describes the same action as in- tended or commencing, and may be called the inchoative prefix. Thus, ATIL9, " the act of going," atife, " the act of loving," considered as not yet in exercise. The abstract idea of the action expressed in the verb may asa eye adaba video er negatived, or converted into its opposite, by the prefixing of a to the abstract prefix i.

The reduplication of the verb, as pejjapejja, " a fisherman," konrinkonrin, " a singer. From the noun again is formed a verb of posses- sion, by prefixing the verb Nf, "to have," which, before 4 nouns beginning with a, e, o, is changed into li, and drops its vowel ; thus we find, from idajo, "judgment, or the act of judging," nidajo, " to possess, or be in, the act of judging;" from almo, "ignorance," LAIM9, "to possess ignorance ;" from ese, " sin," lese, " to possess sin ;" from owo, " money," lowo, " to possess money.

And hence nouns of possession are formed by pre- fixing a vowel to this verb, which varies according to a determinate rule. Where the form ni is retained, the prefixed vowel is: SE, " sin," the original idea of the verb. ESE, " sin," the noun, an irregular formation.

LESE, " to have sin," verb of possession. Verb of Noun of Idea. Of the former, Boyce says in his Grammar, " The second person sing, of the imp. The Kisuaheli language, also, has modes of formation by which substantives, as well concrete as abstract, are derived from verbs, or from simple nouns, as Dr. Krapf has fully explained in his grammar of that language, pp. Part IL Ch.

A prin- ciple of this kind, it is true, is of necessity to be found in operation in all polysyllabic tongues ; but the distin- guishing feature in the Yoruba is the beautiful com- pleteness and perfect regularity which characterize its formative process.

Krapf in his Kisuaheli works. He re- solves this grand peculiarity into an action of the South- African mind in its contemplation of nature. The South-Afri- can mind distinguishes the animate creation from the inanimate ; and, again, distinguishes in the animate creation rational and irrational beings, men and brutes.

Furthermore, in the inanimate creation it distinguishes between life and death, as it were. In general, it would seem that the South-African mind, in the formation and cultivation of its language, was guided by the impression of life which pervades the whole creation in various gra- dations or modifications.

Krapf, developed itself in a general classification of nouns substantive, by means of a system of formative prefixes. And the entire absence of any such classification in the Yoruba is fully sufficient to ex- clude it from that extensive family of languages which occupies the W'hole of Africa south of the line, and of which I have recently discovered the Temneh with its two cognates, the Sherbro and the BiiUom to be a branch.

Each personal pronoun in the singular number has three distinct forms, which cannot be used indiscrimi- nately, but the appropriateness of which depends ex- clusively upon the vowel sound of the verb with which they are in construction.

Asa eye adaba video er vowel sound affects the vowel of the pronoun, altering it so as to make it of the same kind or quantity. The first, indeed, of the three forms just alluded to is a sort of general form, being the original and full form of the pronoun ; but the use of the two latter is wholly regulated by the vowel sound of the verb.

For this purpose the vowels of the Yoruba language are apparently made to form two separate classes, accord- ing to the closeness or openness of their sound ; thus — Close vowels The full forms of the three personal pronouns are, emi, iwo, on.

The forms which they assume before the first class of vowels are, mo, o, 6 ; and before the second, mo, o, o. The third personal pro- noun, 6, 9, is marked w ith the acute accent, to show that the distinction between the second and third consists in the latter being enunciated with an elevation of the voice.

The Yoruba language abounds in these intonations. It is observable, also, that the negative particle is subject to the same changes, its original form being ki, before close vowels Ko, and before open, ko.

This system of muta- tions, which I would call the Vocalic Euphony System, may be exhibited in the following table: It consists in that case of a single vowel-sound, which varies not only according to the class of the vowel in the verb, but according to its individual sound ; so that it possesses no less than seven forms, whose use is not op- tional, but regulated by the verb: Obj SA.

A SE f E BE E TI 1 RO y FO o RU u This system, thougli appearing only in the single in- stance of the concord between the verb and the pronoun unless indeed we include the formation sajna adeel sadiq ringtone s nouns of pos- session, already described, which is strictly asa eye adaba video er, is still observable as proving the existence of that princi- ple, which seems everywhere to asa eye adaba video er the African mind, of making the sound an artificial vehicle of the sense, so that the words which, in a sentence, have a cer- tain relation to each other, may be known to have that relation asa eye adaba video er their similarity of sound.

This principle gives to the asa eye adaba video er of Africa an external superficial character ; scarcely less so, though of a totally dillerent kind, siguro yeng constantino instrumental that which is manifested by the monosyllabic languages, where position is the only guide to the mutual 10 relation which obtains between the component parts of a sentence.

I must add, however, that it affords us no clue to the position which this language holds amongst them, except it be negatively, by pointing out to what classes it does not belong. The simple fact, that in the Yoruba the euphonic changes affect tlie vowel-sound alone, whilst in those systems which prevail so generally throughout Africa the concord is effected by consonantal changes, furnishes asa eye adaba video er with a very marked distinction, sufficient to exclude this language from the other classes in which the euphonic principle is found; although the existence of the principle in any shape may still be regarded as a connecting link, in tracing out the larger families of human speech.

Asa eye adaba video er know of but one instance in which there is any thing that very closely resembles the vocalic euphony of the Yoruba, and that is in the concord of the verb and pro- noun in one tense only in the Haussa language.

Schon, p. Their general resemblance to each other in point of construction clearly proves them all to belong to one stock ; whilst the dissimilarity existing between them and the Yoruba, in the particular we are now con- sidering, will confirm us in the conclusion to which we have been already led by the total want in the latter of that system of classification by prefixes which pervades and distinguishes the former.

There is, however, one other very remarkable language, long known to Europeans on the West Coast, which ex- hibits the peculiarity of the euphonic concord ; I mean, the WolofF. The third feature which 1 shall notice in the Yoruba is one of a still more negative character than either of those which have preceded. It is the total absence of conjugation in the verb. There are, it is true, a few par- ticles used as auxiliary verbs, to mark distinctions of mood and tense ; but these, with the single exception, perhaps, of the future auxiliary vio, are significant in themselves, and consequently separable from the verb they are employed to modify.

Thus we have le and ma, denoting a potential and a subjunctive mood respectively ; as also for the tenses, ti, past, and yio, future. But there is nothing that presents the asa eye adaba video er of inflex- ion: The grand peculiarity of African languages generally, as it respects the verb, is the extreme perfection to which they have carried that kind of conjugation which Chev.

Bunsen has denominated the Semitic. By this name is denoted " the modification of the predicate con- tained in each adjective verb," to give his own definition, in contradistinction to what he calls the Sanscritic con- jugation, " which is intended to mark the modifications of which the copula is capable, according to time and mode of existence.

Asa eye adaba video er berg, Ch. The Ethiopic language, strictly Semitic, has ten of these different forms ; whilst in the Amharic, which connects Semitism with Africa, Isenberg has exhibited no less than twenty-four variations of form belonging to the regular and perfect verb.

Bunsen states that the old Egyptian shows a germ of this Semitic conjugation ; but the developement of that germ in the Coptic is not organic, being effected by an auxiliary. The same system prevails to some extent in the Berber ; so much so, that Newman says in his grammar, " From primitive verbs are derived others with a modified mean- ing, exactly on the same principle as in the Ethiopian and Syro-Arabian.

The Causative, with respect to which he asa eye adaba video er, " This is so entirely a living process, that a causative verb, it would seem, may always safely be invented from any given verb, without risk of being misunderstood.

The Passive or Neuter; and, kinamu reporter youtube. The Reciprocal ; adding that " more derived forms than these exist, but cannot yet be methodized. To mention some few of the many dialects which compose that family, the Kafir exhibits at least eight modifications of the verb, the Siciiana six, the Kisuaheli seven, the Mpongwe eleven, and the Temneh an equal number.

I Ibid. It denotes that the action described is performed rela- tively, for or in behalf of another. Asa eye adaba video er conjugation does not appear in the Wololf, which, however, is re- markably prolific in its modifications of the verb, count- ing no less than eleven, and many of these peculiar to itself, having no place in other languages ; as, for in- stance, the Preparatory, the Iterative, the Diminutive, and the Intensive Negative conjugations ; thus serving to keep up that character for singularity which distinguishes this unique specimen of human speech.

Even in the Mandingo there asa eye adaba video er a slight touch ofSemitism in this respect, as a causative conjugation may be formed from the radical by an organic change ; but to the best of my asa eye adaba video er, these modifications of the predicate are not car- ried any further in that dialect.