Overhead power lines planning design construction pdf
Download Kiessling Overhead Power Lines Planning Design Construction. Overhead Power Lines: Planning, Design, Construction, PDF eBook The chapters on line survey, construction and maintenance address updated. Overhead Power Lines presents not only the scientific and engineering basis for the Versehen mit digitalem Wasserzeichen, DRM-frei; Erhältliche Formate: PDF aspects and steps in overhead line planning and construction has changed.
Overhead power lines: planning, design, construction | Shahir Ibrahimi - bi-b41.de
This book is dedicated to the memory of Mike Korber, one of the authors who sadly passed away while developing the material.
His contribution is greatly appreciated by the Eskom team. While the authors and Eskom Holdings Ltd have made every effort to ensure the accuracy of this document, they cannot be held responsible for any errors or any infringment of copyright and patent rights, nor any direct or consequential new funny videos 2014 or damage suffered by any person or organisation, however caused, which may result from the use of this document.
All rights to this document are reserved. Except where allowed by the Copyright Act, no part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, either electronic or mechanical, without prior written permission from Eskom Holdings Ltd. The Eskom Power Series was conceived as a result of concern over the continuing loss of critical technical skills and experience.
A series of events, spanning the past few decades, has reshaped the electricity supply industry and retaining a skilled workforce remains a major priority. Each year, a growing number of technical experts leaves the industry, depriving it of a wealth of experience, knowledge and expertise.
The aim of the series is to serve as a guide and a legacy by collating Eskom's knowledge and curriculum vitae formato europeo da compilare. Written by Eskom staff who are familiar with local Southern African conditions, the Power Series offers a source of reliable, reputable and high level technical information and practice.
We anticipate that the series will grow according to the needs of industry. The confidence we place in our Power Series is justified by the many world-class innovative technologies developed by Eskom, which has also created a highly efficient infrastructure.
For example, Eskom built the world's largest coal-fired overhead power lines planning design construction pdf station, which uses a drycooling system developed by engineers in South Africa. Eskom is also developing 'pebble bed modular reactor' nuclear technology, designed to be inherently safe. The great success of our rural electrification programme, achieved in a relatively short time, places us among world leaders in this field. Eskom also pioneered and was the first to build power lines at voltages of kV in high altitude conditions, a challenging feat.
In addition to many local and international awards presented to Eskom each year, we were awarded the Community Development Programme of the Year award inat the Global Energy Awards in New York City.
This award, arguably one of the most prestigious in the global utility industry, affirms our place among other major utilities in the world. The Power Series is a practical series targeted at individuals working within the utility environment. Volume One offers a useful guide to the design of overhead power lines for voltages of kV and somatologie rokyta games, focusing mainly on alternating current AC lines.
A brief chapter covers high voltage direct current HVDC. The chapters are well balanced in their coverage of electrical, mechanical, environmental and civil engineering. The authors regard overhead power line design to be a multidisciplinary field which must not be considered in isolation. Line construction and communication over power lines are covered briefly. Volume Two deals with the fundamentals and practice of overhead line maintenance and provides a comprehensive insight into its philosophy and practice kV and above.
High voltage insulators, a major component in utility power systems, must be selected, applied and maintained with care. The extensive information contained in the Power Series can be applied in utilities worldwide and is accessible to any interested person.
I would like, in conclusion, to acknowledge the high quality of the work that went into the development of this reference book and hope that readers will find it useful in their application.
Many people doubted the possibility of publishing such a comprehensive manual in view of the schedules of the Eskom engineers, technologists and technicians. This was indeed a challenge for our team but I must commend Sanjeev Bisnath overhead power lines planning design construction pdf his dedication and drive in managing this project. Tony Britten assisted greatly in the technical development of this reference book and deserves acknowledgement for going beyond the call of duty to ensure that an international standard was upheld.
The technical editing for this publication was challenging and I must thank Dave Cretchley for his invaluable contribution. Dzevad Muftic made significant contributions in collaborating with the authors when problems were encountered and added great value in collating the text.
Jan Reynders is acknowledged for his general guidance. Riaz Vajeth did a sterling job in getting the chapters developed and also assisted with the technical editing. This chapter introduces the role played by overhead power lines in the establishment and operation of a modern electric utility network. The interaction of the electrical parameters that affect the ability of the overhead power line to transmit power are described.
This serves to introduce the theme of the book, namely, the design and construction of novel, compacted overhead power lines which offer reliable, cost-effective and environmentally acceptable performance. Society in all parts of the world is profoundly dependent on a reliable and low-cost source of electricity for the home and work. Electricity is not an end in itself, but it makes communication, mass transport and energy for the home, business and factory easy to provide.
It is hard to imagine an effective hospital without electricity; business and industry would cease if all the facilities made possible by electricity were removed. Electricity has become indispensable because people need energy that is highly adaptable and controllable. In addition, natural sources of energy are frequently in areas remote from the user and may not be in the form the user needs. Electrical energy offers efficient conversion from a variety of sources to electricity, easy transport to the user sometimes over very long distancesand re-conversion to the form that the user needs.
All of this can be achieved in a clean, controllable and efficient manner. Thus, it is not surprising that the electrical utility industry is one of overhead power lines planning design construction pdf largest and most complex in the world. Overhead power lines are the means of transporting electrical energy, and they need to fulfil their function with a high level of reliability, while having the lowest possible impact on the environment. Overhead power lines have been in existence for more than a hundred years, as shown in Table 1.
One of the dominant characteristics is the development of long distance transmission, as shown in Figure overhead power lines planning design construction pdf. The Southern African transmission grid. The Southern African network is being developed in response to the needs overhead power lines planning design construction pdf the region as a whole.
Despite this level of achievement, there is continual refinement underway. Significant reductions in cost and improvements in performance have been achieved by using compact guyed structures and other innovations.
In the past three overhead power lines planning design construction pdf, environmental impact has assumed considerable importance. The influence the overhead power lines planning design construction pdf and electric and magnetic fields have on the environment must conform to increasingly demanding requirements.
Audible noise and radio interference are also significant issues which have to be addressed. Some of the above environmental factors can have a critical overhead power lines planning design construction pdf on the overhead power lines planning design construction pdf design of a line. The designer must therefore blend all the restrictions, with the requirement of producing a cost-effective and highly reliable line.
This book draws on a wealth of practical and theoretical experience on the planning, design and construction of overhead power lines. It is intended to serve as a reference source for planners and design teams, by providing a comprehensive overview of the theoretical considerations and their application to the actual design of optimised lines.
It is complemented by the Eskom book entitled, The fundamentals and practice of overhead line maintenance' . Before presenting an overview of the design process and the structure of the book, it is necessary to introduce some elementary concepts. An overhead power line may be represented by the simple equivalent circuit shown in Figure 1. For three-phase lines, it is assumed that balanced conditions pertain and that a single-phase circuit is an adequate representation of the line.
The series resistance and inductance, as well as the shunt capacitance, can be readily calculated from the line geometry or found in tables see Chapter 2.
The subscript's' on the voltage and current applies to the sending-end of the line and the subscript 'r' on the voltage and current applies to the receiving-end of the line. PL also refers to what is known as the steady-state stability limit of the line. This equation describes some very important properties of the limits of performance of an overhead power line:. The power that can be transmitted is directly proportional to the product of the sending- and receiving-end voltages. Since these are usually more-or-Iess the same, the power limit is proportional to the square of the operating voltage.
It is for this reason that utilities use higher voltages to transmit higher amounts of power. The increase in series reactance, for comparable line lengths, does not increase significantly with voltage, and hence, if the operating voltage of a line is doubled, the increase in the power limit is almost fourfold. Obviously, increases in voltage require more insulation and wider servitudes, but the economics and environmental impact of moving to higher voltages, in comparison to having a number of parallel lines, are usually in favour of the higher voltage option.
The power that can be transmitted is inversely proportional to the series reactance, and hence the length, overhead power lines planning design construction pdf the line. The geometry of the conductor bundles, phase separation and length of the line dictate this reactance. Compact configurations can decrease the series reactance significantly.
This becomes very important for long lines. The series reactance is inductive and can be reduced through overhead power lines planning design construction pdf use of series capacitors.
This is often implemented on lines of km or more in length. In this way, the transmitted power can be significantly increased, but at the risk of causing sub-synchronous resonance. For lines shorter than about krn, the above equation is still applicable. However, in such cases, the maximum power transmitted overhead power lines planning design construction pdf often limited by the thermal rating of the line conductors or substation terminal equipment, and not by voltage drop and stability considerations.
Bearing in mind the above considerations, line designers are usually presented with an approximate line length, an operating voltage and a power limit. It is their task to produce a line that operates at the desired voltage and is capable of delivering the power required. At the same time, it must satisfy the environmental, availability, reliability, safety and security requirements, all within a specified budget. Environmental considerations have a major influence on the design of overhead power lines.
They are generally covered by statutory requirements, utility policies and related guidelines, but designers do in any case need to be aware of the environmental impacts of overhead power lines.
There are major constraints for overhead power lines in respect of electric and magnetic fields, corona audible and radio noiseland occupation and limitation for further use, wild life protection, and visual impact. Environmental constraints on current development in Southern Africa can have a significant effect on the economics and performance of overhead power lines. The availability of a power supply is generally measured in terms of the number of hours in a year for which the power system is able to perform its function.
The availability of lines as a part of the power system is a component of total availability. For lines in particular, a distinction can be made between the electrical and mechanical structural components of reliability. As a measure of effectiveness, availability was considered from the early stages of the development lucas brand bags overhead power lines, although it was not formalised in terms of measured values. What has changed, and is still changing, is that the criteria of availability are becoming stricter and stricter.
What was once considered an acceptable level of availability is not acceptable today. The implications for the design of overhead power lines are significant. Reliability resolves itself into two important criteria, namely, availability and quality of supply.
It is defined as the probability of continuous power transfer under a set of operating conditions, during a specified time of operation. Like availability, it has economic implications and for each project the question of how much the improvement in reliability will cost, and whether it is worth the cost, must be answered .
Related videosBasics of Transmission Line Design
Jetzt sparen: KiesslingF. The basic elements of overhead power line technology have been known for many years. However, this technology has continuously developed, for example, adjusting the design of the lines to new transmission needs and to available rights-of-way, and to accommodate environmental overhead power lines planning design construction pdf or resources.
Since many existing overhead line installations are approaching the end of their economic and technical lifetime, strategies for maintenance to extending their operational life are needed. Also, because of the introduction of new standards and deregulation, the basis of design and verification for all aspects and steps in overhead line planning and construction has changed.
The industry, therefore, requires a publication reflecting these developments and changes. Overhead Power Lines present not only the scientific and engineering basis for the electric and mechanical design, but also comprehensively describe all aspects of most recent technology, including the selection and design of components such as conductors, insulators, fittings, supports and foundations. The chapters on line survey, construction and maintenance address updated requirements and solutions.
In addition, the book carefully considers the changing economic and technical environment of the overhead power line business. This publication is intended to introduce students and beginners to the full range of relevant topics of line design and implementation, and to serve as a valuable reference to engineers and technicians employed by overhead line operators, contractors overhead power lines planning design construction pdf consulting companies to carry out their daily tasks.
The book also supplies everyone else in the electric-energy supply industry, including design, maintenance, and construction engineers, with a ready reference. This publication is intended to introduce students and beginners to the full range of relevant topics of line design and implementation and to serve as a valuable reference ….
Power Systems Vorschau. Hardcover kaufen. Softcover kaufen. Alles zeigen. From the reviews: Friedrich et al.
Seiten Electric requirements and design Kiessling, Dr. Electric parameters Kiessling, Dr. Lightning spaja nas nadej a laska mp3 Kiessling, Dr. Earthing Kiessling, Dr. Requirements on loading and strength Kiessling, Dr. Selection of conductors Kiessling, Dr. Earth wire selection Kiessling, Dr. Insulators Kiessling, Dr. Overhead line fittings Kiessling, Dr.
Conductor vibrations Kiessling, Dr. Supports Kiessling, Dr. Foundations Kiessling, Dr. Sag and tension calculations Kiessling, Dr. Route selection and detailed line design Kiessling, Dr. Construction Kiessling, Dr. Commissioning, operation and line management Kiessling, Dr. Wir empfehlen. PAGE 1.